Subgroup 1

Internet, multimedia, hypertext as a support for
mathematics learning and teaching

Nina Boswinkel
& Frans Moerlands
Netherlands The Rekennet (Mathnet for primary school teachers)
Mary Jean Winter USA Experiences with internet based/assisted courses at the introductory university level
George L.Ekol Uganda The future directions of technology use in mathematics education in Sub-Saharan Africa
Tohsuke Urabe Japan Mathematics Museum, Japan - a museum on the Internet
Hans-Georg Weigand Germany New ways of communicating in mathematics teacher education: Linking to the Internet
Jenny Pange Greece Can we teach statistics to undergraduate students using the world wide web?
 Raouf N. Boules USA Interactive numerical analysis using Mathematica
Bryan Dye UK Interactive mathematics online for school and home
Jenni Way UK The NRICH project: An interactive Internet mathematics education resource
Shoichiro Machida Japan Development of hypermedia-based mathematics sub-textbooks by a conceptual and proceedual mapping method
Wei-Chi Yang USA Mathematics and technology in the East and the West
Gary G Bitter USA Web-based Multimedia Professional Development in Mathematics Education: Mathedology™


Gary G Bitter

Arizona State University

Web-based Multimedia Professional Development in Mathematics Education: Mathedology™

Mathedology™ is a professional development program designed to help elementary teachers improve their mathematics instruction and align their teaching with the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics. Mathedology™ employs Progressive Networks' G2 RealPlayer technology, which provides simultaneous streaming video to the users via the Internet. Teachers across the country can now access any or all of the 25 lessons in the Mathedology™ program, using any type of Web browser or on CD-ROM. The interactive multimedia (IMM) program Mathedology™ provides video of 25 K-5 elementary mathematics lessons exemplifying the NCTM discourse standards. The program uses a uniform, Web-based, graphic user interface for each of the 25 lessons. A search engine allows searching the database for specific lessons or by (a) grade level, (b) language environment, or (c) content of lesson.



Nina Boswinkel & Frans Moerlands

Freudenthal Institute, Utrecht University

The Rekennet (Mathnet for primary school teachers)

The goal of the Rekennet project, is to support primary school teachers in their task to teach realistic mathematics. The Rekennet consists of two components: a social rekennetwork and an internet website. In the social rekennetwork primary schoolteachers meet each other and talk about mathematics in their daily profession. We call this horizontal professionalization: teachers learning from teachers. At the other hand, didactical experts of the Freudenthal Institute join the meetings and hear what the problems are in order to reflect efficiently. The internet website ( gives the ultimate opportunity to communicate with colleagues. The rekenweb also contains a lot of computergames for children, workingsheets that teachers can print and use in their lesson, practical suggestions etc. The content of the rekennet is based on the suggestions of the primary school teachers. Thus the Rekennet has a lot of opportunities to reach the teachers and to provide them with useful ideas and materials for their daily lesson.


Raouf N. Boules

Mathematics Department, Towson University

Interactive numerical analysis using Mathematica

This paper presents an innovative approach to teaching an introductory numerical analysis course interactively using the Computer Algebra System Mathematica. This approach promotes learning by experimenting through allowing the students to interact with the text. The powerful interactive programming capabilities, high-speed calculations, and the versatile graphics and animations available in Mathematica are utilized in developing interactive text modules in topics such as approximation, Riemann sums, numerical integration, interpolation, modeling with exponential functions and others. Students are asked what-if questions and to supply interpretations and comments on various results. This approach also enables the students to examine examples of practical complexity and to discover the capabilities and limitations of the various numerical techniques. Examples of the modules developed will be presented in this paper. These examples discuss Newton's method for solving equations, polynomial interpolation, numerical integration and adaptive quadrature.


Bryan Dye

The Hewett School, Norwich, UK

Interactive mathematics online for school and home

The development of interactive online resources for school use by teachers and pupils and at home by individual learners should be focussed on providing one single means (which I will call the viewer) of accessing many varied types of interactivity. Currently this viewer is the web browser and the varied types of interactivity available to mathematics include dynamic geometry, algebra, graphing, spreadsheeting and others created using technologies such as JavaScript, Java and various browser plugins. In the future the viewer is likely to be some form of digital TV interface. These developments, viewed optimistically, could open up ICT to students and reduce the technological barriers existing so far. My contribution will include consideration of the experience and benefits of using the Internet in school and at home, how these two means of access should differ, and a review of what is currently available, including particularly examples of current best practice.


George L.Ekol

Uganda Polytechnic Kyambogo
P.O.Box 7181, Kampala

The future directions of technology use in mathematics education in Sub-Saharan Africa

In many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the number of applicants for tertiary education is far greater than the facilities available in the existing institutions to handle them. Access to science -based courses including mathematics is even more difficult since the facilities available can only allow for a small percentage of all those who qualify. The African Virtual University (AVU) is a World Bank ( WB) project started in 1997 ,initially in six SSA countries, to try and respond to the growing demand for tertiary education, especially in the sciences and mathematics. The mission of AVU is to use the power of modern information technology to increase access to educational resources throughout SSA. At its inception the countries which acquired the AVU sites were Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe. At the end of 1999, more countries in SSA had acquired AVU sites where satellites facilities are installed .In Uganda there are three AVU sites located at different University campuses. In this paper, the learning activities at the AVU sites are described using Uganda as a reference point. The AVU is presently moving from the pilot phase to the operational phase. As this happens a lot of issues will have to be addressed by the SSA countries, among which are the funding of AVU, curriculum design, accreditation of AVU certificates, location of AVU headquarters in SSA, improvement of facilities at AVU sites and more. The perspectives of SSA Universities with regard to these issues are also highlighted here as a response to the World Bank policy position. Finally the paper also draws attention to ICMI to study the operations of AVU, with a view to helping to improve the Instruction of Mathematics in SSA.


Shoichiro Machida

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Education,Saitama University

Development of hypermedia-based mathematics sub-textbooks by a conceptual and proceedual mapping method

The new Japanese curriculum ,which will be enforced from April 2002, has aims related to developing autonomous and creative students. In order to build an educational environment consistent with this new curriculum, we think we should make hypermedia sub-textbooks instead of printed paper textbooks. Our hypertext materials have the following characteristics: (i) They are offered via CD-ROM; (ii) Some subject materials are mutually linked to much more relevant materials through hypertext; each hypertext screen should provide detailed explanations when students encounter unfamiliar concepts or theorems; (iii) Our hypertext materials are collected from 4th grade to 9th grade levels materials as the fundamental parts. (iv) College students and teachers will be able to make their lesson plans with links of their frames to our hypermedia materials.


Jenny Pange

Department of Education, University of Ioannina
Dourouti 45110

Can we teach statistics to undergraduate students using the world wide web?

In learning situations, technology is often used by learners as a medium to find information provided by the teacher or by other people. Educators and technologists are interested in finding the appropriate way in which to use information technology in the teaching and in the learning process. Some researchers believe that shifting from the traditional delivery of lectures to a class into a technology rich environment requires an enormous amount of effort on the part of the lecturer and student. In WWW exploration and distant learning situations technology is always present. In our work we used technology to replicate the traditional way of lecturing statistics to an undergraduate class of over 20 students in the Department of Education. The course covered descriptive statistics and the course material included an extensive number of examples, exercise work and homework. This material was on our Department's Internet site written in our language and was available for students to take it in at their own time. Participating students did not all have the same amount of knowledge of use of technology. So, firstly we explained to them how to use it. Then, each student in the course was given a unique ID and password to access the course material any time. The terminals in the Computer Center in our University had an Internet access and the students used them any time during the week. Once a week a meeting/lecture between the lecturer and students was held to go over difficult material and to work through statistical examples. Paper copies of descriptive statistics were copied and distributed to students. Information was also given about other statistical online course notes on the world wide web. During the week the lecturer/student communication was established via email. At the end of the course students had a 3-hour written examination based on course content. Our analysis of the use of these 'www statistical lectures' suggested that: (a) fewer lecturing hours were needed, compared with face to face teaching; (b) the student's technical bias at the beginning of the course had no impact on their overall performance; and (c) students mastered the subject well.


Tohsuke Urabe

Department of Mathematical Sciences, Ibaraki University

Mathematics Museum, Japan - a museum on the Internet

I am organizing an enterprise for mathematics education on the Internet, called Mathematics Museum, Japan. The URL is the following: (Japanese version) (English version).You can actually enjoy mathematics there. This site has several significant features. First, the purpose is to rouse naive intellectual curiosity of younger people. Second, it is a cooperative enterprise of Japanese mathematics researchers and educators. Third, it is a site connecting various sites spread across the whole of Japan. Fourth, we employ multimedia and interactive properties of the web and try to reduce the number of sentences used. Fifth, it is a world-wide enterprise on the Internet. The most important aspect of education is to give human beings motivation for study by themselves. Several years ago I hoped to do some work on this aspect, and made the plan. It has already been introduced in various books on Internet, and has a high reputation.


Jenni Way

Cambridge University, School of Education

The NRICH project: An interactive Internet mathematics education resource

The NRICH Online Maths Club ( is a grant-funded internet service that provides a range of mathematics enrichment resources for primary and secondary teachers and students. The main aim of the project is to support young able mathematicians and their teachers and provide opportunities for mathematical enrichment beyond the limitations of set curricula. Collectively, the fifteen or so website sections encompass: News, articles, resource reviews, links to other sites, problems, investigations, puzzles, challenges, games, activities, communication facilities - publication of students solutions, email talk-lists, web-board conferencing, on-line mentoring. New material is presented each month, with past material archived into an accessible and searchable library. As of 1st February 2000, there were 4334 registered members, across 73 countries, though a conservative estimate puts the number of distinct users at 30 thousand. Evaluation studies suggest that there are some specific characteristics of the website that significantly impact on both learners and teachers.


Hans-Georg Weigand

University of Giessen, Institute for Mathematics Education

New ways of communicating in mathematics teacher education: Linking to the Internet

Communication is an essential part of mathematics education and mathematics teacher education. Communications through technology can support the goals of mathematics education courses and programs, and can promote the professional development of participating teachers and educators. This presentation is about a semester-long course of 150 teacher students. Every student had to have an email-address and had to have access to the Internet. Via the Internet we provided web-based lecture notes, exercises, a listserve, and a webboard for electronic discussions of special topics about mathematics education. We were especially interested in the meanings that new types of communication, namely technology-assisted communication, make possible. Announcements initiated by teachers or students, discussions in the whole Group or in small groups, dialogues between Instructors or between instructors and students, explorations or reflections. The presentation will provide an overview of the Internet-based class room activities and of some results of the empirical investigation.


Mary Jean Winter

Department of Mathematics
Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824

Experiences with internet based/assisted courses at the introductory university level

The qualitative college algebra course at Michigan State University is offered both as a traditional course by the Mathematics Department and as an internet course by the Virtual University. On-campus students may enroll in either version. This presentation will discuss the development, by members of the Mathematics Department, of the parallel online course as well as the results of its first implementation. Also discussed will be the succeeding course, Applications of Algebra, which is currently taught in lecture/lab format but uses the internet for resources from online lectures to an asynchronous help room. Both these courses have very large enrollments. The author hopes that the description of the situation at her institution will contribute to the discussion of successful and less-successful approaches tried at other institutions.


Wei-Chi Yang

Department of Mathematics and Statistics
Radford University

Mathematics and technology in the East and the West

An overview is given of the impact of mathematics computational tools on mathematics education. The author shows how technology is used as an exploratory tool in the U.S. One question that many U.S. educators debate about is how much algebraic manipulation techniques are required when technology is introduced in a classroom. Implementing technology into mathematics curriculum may be difficult in many Asian Pacific regions. One reason may be because many education systems in the Asian Pacific regions still adopt the "college entrance examination". Thus, many students and even parents usually ask how technology can help students do better in the examinations? In the process of adopting new technology into classrooms and examinations, the author suggests that requiring basic manipulation skills from students is desirable and we ought to be careful when we design a problem which requires the use of technology. We may not have comprehensive solutions for both educators in the U.S. and in the Asian Pacific regions, but we will provide some partial solutions.